GGHYDRO is a global hydrographic dataset with a resolution of 1° in
longitude and latitude. It consists of 21 fields of data. Two of these, GLAC and CRYO, are of direct
glaciological relevance. The fields, listed in the table, include estimates
of the percentage extent of hydrologically or climatologically interesting
terrain types; stream frequency counts; estimates of runoff; and digital maps
of the major continental drainage basins and of the cryosphere.
||Dry land |
||Perennial freshwater lakes|
||Swamp, marsh and other wetlands|
||Salt water of the ocean|
||Intermittent water bodies|
||Saltwater, marine or terrestrial|
||Surface runoff of water|
||Estimated rms error of RNOF|
||Runoff of ice|
||A 5-percent land mask|
||Major drainage basins|
||Smaller drainage basins|
||Main features of the cryosphere|
GGHYDRO was compiled in the mid-1980s as a tool for helping to describe the
world's land surfaces to general circulation climate models. While more
accurate or more highly resolved descriptions of the contents of some of the
fields are now available, GGHYDRO retains its original advantages of moderate
size, internal consistency and useful content. It has been corrected
periodically as errors have been detected. To view maps of the GGHYDRO
fields, click GGHYDRO maps .
Shades of brown: local extent of permafrost
(absent, restricted, common, ubiquitous). Shades of magenta: local extent of
sea ice (seasonal, permanent). Blue: ice sheets. Cyan: ice shelves.
GGHYDRO Release 2.3.1 is now available. It differs only in format, not
content, from Release 2.3 of January 2003. Release 2.3.1 is organized into
- 21 data files (see table above);
- one supplementary file, GGHBAS2.LST, which lists the codes occurring
in BAS2 and provides additional information for
interpreting the codes;
- GGHREAD.ME, a file explaining the organization of the dataset and
providing a revision log;
- and GGHREAD.F90, containing a sample Fortran read procedure.
GGHYDRO may be used freely, provided that it not be sold for profit and that
it be duly acknowledged in any published work.
Cogley, J.G., 2003, GGHYDRO - Global Hydrographic Data,
Release 2.3.1, Trent Technical Note 2003-1, Department of Geography, Trent
University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. Revised January 2007.
Cogley, J.G., 1998, GGHYDRO - Global Hydrographic Data,
Release 2.2, Trent Climate Note 98-1, Department of Geography, Trent
University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
Cogley, J.G., 1989, Runoff from the World's Landmasses:
Amounts and Uncertainties at 2-degree Resolution, Trent Climate Note 89-3,
Department of Geography, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. 8p.
Some Recent Users of GGHYDRO
Arora, V.K., F.H.S. Chiew and R.B. Grayson, 1999, A
river flow routing scheme for general circulation models, Journal of
Geophysical Research, 104, 14347-14357.
Bonan, B.G., 1995, Sensitivity of a GCM simulation to
inclusion of inland water surfaces, Journal of Climate, 8,
Braithwaite, R.J., 2002, Glacier mass balance: the first
50 years of international monitoring, Progress in Physical Geography,
Coe, M.T., 2000, Modeling terrestrial hydrological
systems at the continental scale: testing the accuracy of an atmospheric GCM,
Journal of Climate, 13, 686-704.
Coe, M.T., 1998, A linked global model of terrestrial
hydrologic processes: simulation of modern lakes, rivers and wetlands,
Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 8885-8899.
Coe, M.T., 1997, Simulating continental surface waters:
an application to Holocene North Africa, Journal of Climate,
Levis, S., J.A. Foley and D. Pollard, 2000, Large-scale
vegetation feedbacks on a doubled CO2 climate, Journal of
Climate, 13, 1313-1325.
Levis, S., M.T. Coe and J.A. Foley, 1996, Hydrologic
budget of a land surface model: a global application, Journal of
Geophysical Research, 101, 16921-16930.
Prigent, C., E. Matthews, F. Aires and W.B. Rossow,
2001, Remote sensing of global wetland dynamics with multiple satellite data
sets, Geophysical Research Letters, 28(24), 4631-4634.
Raper, S.C.B., and R.J. Braithwaite, 2005, The potential
for sea level rise: new estimates from glacier and ice cap area and volume
distributions, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L05502,