Canid and Ungulate Ecology Lab


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Collaring of moose calf, 2008


Phone: 705-755-1553

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Articles published or accepted in refereed journals:


Benson, J.F., Mills, K.J., and B.R. Patterson. 2015. Resource selection by wolves at dens and rendezvous sites in Algonquin Park, Canada. Biological Conservation 182: 223-232. [PDF]


Benson, J.F. and B.R. Patterson. 2014. Spatial overlap, proximity, and habitat use of individual wolves within the same packs. Wildlife Society Bulletin. doi: 10.1002/wsb.506  [PDF]


Garvey, M.E. and B.R. Patterson. 2014. Evaluation of Cable Restraints to Live-capture Coyotes (Canis latrans) in Southern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Wildlife Biology and Management 3: 22-29. [PDF]


Benson, J., B.R. Patterson, and P.J. Mahoney. 2014. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone. Ecology 95(2): 254-264. [PDF]


Benson, J.F. and B.R. Patterson. 2013. Moose (Alces alces) predation by eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) and eastern coyote × eastern wolf (Canis latrans × Canis lycaon) hybrids. Canadian Journal of Zoology 91: 1–5. [PDF]


Benson, J.F., K.J. Mills, K.M. Loveless, and B.R. Patterson. 2013. Genetic and environmental influences on pup mortality risk for wolves and coyotes within a Canis hybrid zone. Biological Conservation 166: 133–141. [PDF]


Wheeldon, T.J., L.Y. Rutledge, B.R. Patterson, B.N. White, and P.J. Wilson.  2013. Y-chromosome evidence supports asymmetric dog introgression into eastern coyotes.  Ecology and Evolution: DOI: 10.1002/ece3.693 [PDF]


Benson, J. and B.R. Patterson.  2013. Inter-specific territoriality in a Canis hybrid zone: Spatial segregation between Wolves, Coyotes, and Hybrids. Oecologia: DOI: 10.1007/s00442-013-2730-8 [PDF]


Patterson, B.R., Benson, J.F., Middel, K.R., Mills, K.J., Silver, A. and M.E. Obbard. 2013. Moose calf mortality in Central Ontario, Canada. The Journal of Wildlife Management. DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.516. [PDF]



Benson, J.F., Patterson, B.R. and T.J. Wheeldon. 2012. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone. Molecular Ecology, 21: 5934 - 5954. [PDF]

Godwin, C., J.A. Schaefer, B.R. Patterson, and B.A. Pond. 2012. Contribution of dogs to hunting success of white-tailed deer.  Journal of Wildlife Management, DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.474. [PDF]


Wheeldon, T.J. and B.R. Patterson. 2012.  Genetic and morphological differentiation of wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in northeastern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 90: 1221–1230. [PDF]


Wilson, P.J.; Rutledge, L.Y.; Wheeldon, T.J.; Patterson, B.R.; White, B.N. 2012. Y-chromosome evidence supports widespread signatures of three-species Canis hybridization in eastern North America.  Ecology and Evolution 2(9): 2325 – 2332. [PDF]


Stronen, A.V.; Tessier, N.; Jolicoeur, H.; Paquet, P.; Hénault, M.; Villemure, M.; Patterson, B.R.; Sallows, T. Goulet, G.; Lapointe, F.-J. 2012. Canid hybridization: contemporary evolution in human-modified landscapes. Ecology and Evolution 2(9): 2128 – 2140. [PDF]


Rutledge, L.Y., P.J. Wilson, C.F.C. Klütsch, B.R. Patterson and B.N. White. 2012. Conservation genomics in perspective: a holistic approach to understanding Canis evolution in North America.  Biological Conservation 155: 186-192. [PDF]


Wheeldon, T., B.R. Patterson, and D.E. Beyer. 2012. Coyotes in Wolves’                  Clothing. American Midland Naturalist 167: 416-420. [PDF]


Murray, D.L., K. Hussey, L. Finnegan, S. J. Lowe, G. Price, J. Benson, K.                  Loveless, K. Middel, K.J Mills, D. Potter, A. Silver, M.J. Fortin, B.R.                  Patterson, and P.J. Wilson. 2012. Assessment of the status and                  viability of a moose population at its southern range limit in Ontario.                  Canadian Journal of Zoology 90: 422-434. [PDF]


Finnegan, L.A., P.J. Wilson, G.N. Price, S.J. Lowe, B.R. Patterson, M-J.                  Fortin, and D.L. Murray. 2011. The complimentary role of genetic                  and ecological data in understanding population structure: a case                  study using moose (Alces alces). European Journal of Wildlife                  Research. doi: 10.1007/s10344-011-0590-2. [PDF]


Rutledge, L.Y., B.N. White, J.R. Row, and B.R. Patterson. 2011. Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes. Ecology and Evolution. doi: 10.1002/ece3.61. [PDF]


McLoughlin, P. D., Wal, E. V., Lowe, S. J., Patterson, B. R., & Murray, D. L. (2011). Seasonal shifts in habitat selection of a large herbivore and the influence of human activity. Basic and Applied Ecology 12(8): 654-663. [PDF]


Poole, K.G., Gunn, A., Patterson, B.R., and M.Dumond. 2010. Sea Ice and                  Migration of the Dolphin and Union Caribou Herd in the Canadian                  Arctic: An Uncertain Future. Arctic 63: 414-428. [PDF]


Lowe, S.J., B.R. Patterson and J.A. Schaefer. 2010. Lack of behavioural responses of moose (Alces alces) to high ambient temperature near the southern periphery of their range. Canadian Journal of Zoology 88: 1032-1041. [PDF]

Wheeldon, T.J., Patterson, B.R., &  B.N. White. 2010. Sympatric wolf and coyote populations of the western Great Lakes region are reproductively isolated. Molecular Ecology 19: 4428-4440. [PDF

Rutledge, L.Y., B.R. Patterson, and B.N. White. 2010. Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes. Evolutionary Biology 10: 1-12. [PDF]

Rutledge, L.Y., Garroway, C. J., and B.R. Patterson. 2010. Genetic differentiation of eastern wolves in Algonquin Park despite bridging gene flow between coyotes and grey wolves. Heredity 105(6): 520-531. [PDF]

Maxie, A.J., K.F. Hussey, S.J. Lowe, K.R. Middel, B.A. Pond, M.E. Obbard, and B.R. Patterson. 2010. A comparison of forest resource inventory, provincial land cover maps and field surveys for wildlife habitat analysis in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Forest. Forestry Chronicle 86:77-86. [PDF]

Wheeldon, T.J., Patterson, B.R., and B.N. White. 2010. Colonization history and ancestry of northeastern coyotes.  Biology Letters 6:246-247. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., 2010.  (Book Review): Yellowstone Wolves: A Chronicle of the Animal, the People, and the Politics.  Journal of Wildlife Management 74: 188-189. [PDF]

Rutledge, L.Y., Patterson, B.R., Mills, K.J., Loveless, K.M.L., Murray, D.L., & B.N. White. 2010. Protection from harvesting restores the natural social structure of eastern wolf packs. Biological Conservation 143:332-339. [PDF]

Rutledge, L.Y., Holloway, J.J., Patterson, B.R., and B.N. White.  2009. An improved field method to obtain DNA for individual identification from wolf scat. Journal of Wildlife Management 73:1430–1435. [PDF]

Rutledge, L.Y., P.J. Wilson, Kyle, C.J., T.J. Wheeldon, Patterson, B.R., and B.N. White.  2009. How the Gray Wolf Got Its Color.  Science (Letter to the editor). 325: 33-34. [PDF]

Argue, A., K.J. Mills, and B.R. Patterson. 2008. Behavioural response of eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) to disturbance at homesites and its effects on pup survival. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86: 400-406. [PDF]

Mills, K.J., B.R. Patterson, and D.L. Murray. 2008. Direct estimation of early survival and movements in eastern wolf pups. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 949-954. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., and D.L. Murray. 2008. Flawed population viability analysis can lead to misleading population status assessment: a case study for wolves in Algonquin Park, Canada. Biological Conservation 141: 669-680. [PDF]

Kyle, C.J., Johnson, A.R., B.R. Patterson, P.J. Wilson, and B.N. White. 2008. The conspecific nature of eastern and red wolves: conservation and management implications. Conservation Genetics 9: 699-701. [PDF]

Crawshaw, G.J., Mills, K.J., Mosley, C., and B.R. Patterson.  2007. Field Implantation of Intraperitoneal radiotransmitters in Eastern Wolf (Canis lycaon) Pups Using Inhalation Anesthesia with Sevoflurane. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43: 711-718. [PDF]

Vors, L.S., J.A. Schaefer, B.A. Pond, A.R. Rodgers, and B.R. Patterson. 2007. Woodland caribou extirpation and anthropogenic landscape disturbance in Ontario. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 1249-1256. [PDF]

Heisey, D.M., and B.R. Patterson. 2006. A review of methods to estimate cause-specific mortality in presence of competing risks. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(6): 1544-1555. [PDF] Sample data and SPLUS code from Heisey and Patterson

** Guillaume Chapron, an Assistant Professor with the Grimsö Wildlife Research Station has converted this code for use with program R. Download his code here.


Murray, D.L., and B.R. Patterson. 2006. Wildlife Survival Estimation: Recent Advances and Future Directions. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(6):1499-1503. [PDF]

Mills, K.J., B.R. Patterson, and D.L. Murray. 2006. Effects of variable sampling frequencies on GPS transmitter efficiency and estimated wolf home range size and movement distance.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(5):1463-1469. [PDF]

Kyle, C.J., A.R. Johnson, B.R. Patterson, P.J. Wilson, K. Shami, S. Grewal, and B.N. White. 2006. Genetic Nature of Eastern Wolves: past, present and future. Conservation Genetics 7:273-287.  [PDF]

Chappell, D.E., R.A. Van Den Bussche, J. Krizan, and B.R. Patterson. 2004. Contrasting levels of genetic differentiation among populations of wolverines (Gulo gulo) from northern Canada revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial loci. Conservation Genetics 5:759-767.

Muntz, E.M. and B.R. Patterson. 2004. Evidence for the Use of Vocalization to Coordinate the Killing of a White-Tailed Deer by Eastern Coyotes. Canadian Field Naturalist 118:278-280.  

Patterson, B.R., N.W.S. Quinn, E.F. Becker, and D.B. Meier.  2004. Estimating wolf densities in forested areas using network sampling of tracks in snow. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:938-947. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., Olsen, B., and D.O. Joly. 2004. Population estimate for the Bluenose-east caribou herd using post calving photography. Arctic 57:47-58. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., and F. Messier. 2003. Age and condition of deer killed by coyotes in Nova Scotia.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1894-1891. [PDF]

Joly, D.O. and B. R. Patterson. 2003. Use of selection indices to model the functional response of predators. Ecology 84:1634-1639. [PDF]

Smith, P.A., Schaefer, J.A., and B.R. Patterson. 2002. Variation at high latitudes: the geography of body size and cranial morphology of the muskox, Ovibos moschatus. Journal of Biogeography, 29: 1089-1094. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., and V.A. Power. 2002. Contributions of forage competition, harvest, and climate fluctuation to changes in population growth of northern white-tailed deer. Oecologia 130:62-71. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., MacDonald, B.A., Lock, B.A., Anderson, D.A., and L.K. Benjamin. 2002. Proximate factors limiting population growth of white-tailed deer in Nova Scotia. Journal of Wildlife Management 66: 511-521. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., and F. Messier. 2001. Social organization and space-use of coyotes in Eastern Canada relative to prey distribution and abundance. Journal of Mammalogy 82:463-477. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., Benjamin, L.K., and F. Messier. 2000. Winter nutritional condition of eastern coyotes in relation to prey density. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:420-427. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R., and F. Messier. 2000. Factors Influencing Killing Rates of White-Tailed Deer by Coyotes in Eastern Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:721-732.

Patterson, B.R., Bondrup-Nielsen, S., and F. Messier. 1999.  Activity patterns and daily movements of the coyote, Canis latrans, in Nova Scotia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 113:251-257.

Patterson, B.R., Benjamin, L.K., and F. Messier. 1998. Prey Switching and the Feeding Habits of Eastern Coyotes in Relation to Snowshoe Hare and White-Tailed Deer Densities. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1885-1897. [PDF]

Patterson, B.R. 1994. Surplus killing of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by coyotes, Canis latrans, in Nova Scotia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 108: 484-487.



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